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Exports to some countries involve less risk than to other countries and exports of some items involve less risk than do other items. Under the export control regulations, the President has the authority to control and require licenses for the export of items that may pose a national security risk or foreign policy concern. Some examples of items that the US government considers to be especially sensitive or that might threaten the security of the United States include:
- High performance computers
- Sensitive nuclear-related equipment, materials or technology
- Weapons of mass destruction (including biological and chemical weapons)
- Secret weapons programs
"The Export Control and Related Border Security Assistance (EXBS) program is the U.S. Governmentâ€™s premier initiative to help member countries improve their export control systems. The EXBS program is led and funded by the Department of Stateâ€™s Bureau of Nonproliferation, Office of Export Control Cooperation, drawing on expertise from the Departments of State, Homeland Security, Commerce, Energy, Defense, and the private sector to provide a range of training and equipment."
In addition to the government agencies concerned with national security as it relates to export control, there are several research and scientific organizations that monitor international security issues. A couple of those are listed below:
- Federation of American Scientists (FAS)
- FAS National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual (NISPOM)
- Institute for Science and International Security (ISIS)